March 13, 2009
I’ve been very impressed several times in the past few months when I’ve discovered awesome new top-like utilities. I’m probably being slow on the uptake and everyone else but me knows about these, but in case its not just me thats been stuck in the ’70s:
- A much-needed refresh of oldschool top, this still works on your beloved console but gives you visual bar-graphs of CPU, RAM and swap, lets you scroll through the processes and deliver signals/renicing without having to copy the PID off the moving target. Its like the future!
- One of those things I use so often now I have no idea how I even survived without it. Why is this server lagging, who’s hogging the wireless/DSL, which VM is chewing all of the upstream bandwidth? iftop shows you at a glance how much traffic is being used by which host pairs on a given interface, and you can toggle port numbers on and off with simple key-presses. Absolutely indispensable.
- Does this box feel slow to anyone else? Is it swapping, or is it the database server chewing all the IO? Why does my drive keep seeking? It’s amazing… top for IO bandwidth usage!
A passing mention is deserved for apachetop too, which is pretty neat, but when a server is being hammered it’s not something I found too hard to get a feel for just by tailing the log for a while, so it’s not been as life-changing as the others. Maybe that just means my servers don’t see enough traffic.
March 6, 2009
“… all programs that interact with e-mail are broken in one way or another. Please be careful.” – Lars Wirzenius
I seem to have a cunning knack of finding problems with configuring server software, particularly involving e-mail, where a) I can’t find answers in Google, b) most people I go and ask for help say they’d usually ask me such things, and c) if I go onto IRC or mailing lists I end up helping other people and not getting any help with my problem. It’s quite likely this is just because I’m something of a perfectionist, so the ridiculous crappy hacks people come up with and seem content to entrust their mail to are unacceptable to me for one reason or another. Anyway, in my ongoing quest for the perfect mail system, I’ve painted myself into a corner again.
(I’m currently running with postfix, postgrey, clamav-milter, dspam, dovecot using LDA, managesieve and the cmusieve & antispam plugins. If I can get the current incarnation working, I’ve had enough requests to write up a full HOWTO, and seen enough around with pretty questionable content, that I’ll probably do it before too long.)
I’ve got postfix’s local transport configured to hand mail to dspam over LMTP, using mailbox_transport = lmtp:unix:/dspam/dspam.sock. dspam is configured to listen here, add X-DSPAM-Result and signature headers, and then deliver the mail with dovecot’s deliver LDA (which I’ve set to 4750 root:dspam). From dspam.conf:
ServerParameters "--deliver=innocent,spam -d %u"
My dovecot configuration is pretty standard, using PAM for both passdb and userdb, and provides the auth-master socket that deliver needs. The problem I have is that postfix’s local transport is qualifying the local username with the FQDN of the machine before delivering it to dspam with LMTP (the local mail transfer protocol), even for locally-originated mail which was only addressed with a bare username! dspam doesn’t mangle it or care if the user is local or not, and then cheerfully invokes deliver -d firstname.lastname@example.org, which returns EX_NOUSER (addressee unknown) because my username is just robot101. From mail robot101:
Mar 6 02:25:40 omega postfix/pickup: DAA4942F41F: uid=1000 from=<robot101>
Mar 6 02:25:40 omega postfix/cleanup: DAA4942F41F: message-id=<20090306022540.DAA4942F41F@omega.example.co.uk>
Mar 6 02:25:40 omega postfix/qmgr: DAA4942F41F: from=<email@example.com>, size=339, nrcpt=1 (queue active)
Mar 6 02:25:40 omega dovecot: auth(default): passwd(firstname.lastname@example.org): unknown user
Mar 6 02:25:40 omega dspam: Delivery agent returned exit code 67: /usr/lib/dovecot/deliver -d email@example.com
Mar 6 02:25:40 omega postfix/lmtp: DAA4942F41F: to=<firstname.lastname@example.org>, orig_to=<robot101>, relay=omega.example.co.uk[/dspam/dspam.sock], delay=0.08, delays=0.05/0.01/0.01/0.03, dsn=4.3.0, status=deferred (host omega.example.co.uk[/dspam/dspam.sock] said: 421 4.3.0 <email@example.com> Delivered (in reply to end of DATA command))
So, no e-mail for me. Dearest lazyweb, which of the three components is behaving wrongly, and how can I fix it?
(And no, I’m not just going to switch to GMail. I store my data on hard drives, which are sometimes in servers, not “in the cloud”. Until about a month ago, most people I knew spoke about clouds which were made of particles of water in the sky, rather than as a data storage media. What if it rains?
Update: The problem is fixed! Even though arguably the problem is dspam’s for not knowing which users are local or not, it’s fixable in dovecot 1.1.x using the auth_username_format = %n option. Thanks so much to Angel Marin for helping me out.
Update 2: There’s also a patch for dspam floating around which adds a StripRcptDomain option, which makes the LMTP server truncate the e-mail address at the @, so essentially assumes everyone to be a local user. The problem with both of these fixes is that they’re both blunt instruments which will break virtual users on the same host. I think the real fix would be something more like a LocalDomains option in dspam, to choose which domains should be considered local and truncated from the e-mail addresses for delivery purposes.
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